Looking out towards Monserrat, Penedès. Photo Siro Rodenas, Shutterstock

Penedès is one of the few places outside Champagne with a truly unique culture of Traditional Method Sparkling Wines. So why is it in such a muddle?

D.O. Cava

Appellations can be victims of their own success. If the conditions are right, scale players can corner the market and capitalise on the equity of a name such as Cava, eventually becoming so influential that the whole system begins to warp into their image. Freixenet and Cordoniù, owned respectively by Henkell (the source of almost one in ten glasses of sparkling wine in the world) and The Carlyle Group (Accolade Wines), produce around 70% of all Cava. Amid a picture of “imbalances in supply-and-demand” , prices paid to grape growers sunk to €0.30 per kg in 2019 – one twentieth of that fetched by grapes in Champagne. The average selling price for ‘Cava de Guarda’ (the basic catergory which represents 87% of sales) is €4.70.

Where does that leave those who want to escape the rather low-level orbit set by the industrial producers? The grievances that have led to the recent splits have been twofold:

  • Origin. How could it be that four distinct regions across Spain can come under one D.O.? In a tale too long and meandering to recount here, around 5% of ‘Cava’ does not actually come from Penedès, but one of three other authorised regions. This is still the case under the new D.O. regulations, although zones have been updated in some detail following a recent consultation with Tom Stevenson, Sarah Jane Evans MW, Richard Juhlin, Pedro Ballesteros MW and Ferran Centelles.
  • Price. How can artisanal producers expect to fetch higher prices for wines labelled Cava? D.O. Cava introduced the ‘Paraje Calificado’ accreditation for wines from vineyards of recognised quality in 2017, but it has not been enough to appease those working at the top of the quality ladder. Ambitious producers believe. that low prices set by basic Cava are always going to exert downwards pressure on the top of the pyramid.


Things started coming to a head when Raventos ì Blanc left the appellation in 2012, effectively founding their own appellation (the Conca del Riu Anoia). Two years later, the Penedès D.O. still wine appellation gave birth to Clàssic Penedès, a Traditional Method D.O. that serves as a home for eighteen former Cava malcontents. By excluding wines with a majority of bought-in grapes, specifying organic viticulture and setting a fifteen month minimum lees-ageing time, the group put some quality air between it and the much looser Cava D.O.

Then came the big move in 2018: Corpinnat. The renowned producers conspicuously absent from the Clàssic Penedès move announced their new association, and the three-way split in Penedès was complete. But why did these producers not join Classic Penedès?

Corpinnat and Classic Penedès have been in talks , but, as the slide below shows, there are some fundamental differences in outlook. Classic Penedès is almost a re-think of a still wine appellation, with the authorised grape varieties in the D.O. Penedès leaving room for a wide variety of styles. Corpinnat, however, has a traditional streak when it comes to grape varieties, and an even stricter outlook in terms of bought-in grapes:

Spanish Sparkling Wines Comparison
1. Place
D.O. Cava

New zoning definition in 2020. 95% comes from the 'Comtats de Barcelona' (Catalonia) but wines also permitted from the Ebro Valley (La Rioja), Levante (Valencia) and Viñedos de Almendralejo (Extramadura)

Classic Penedès

The same area as defined by the still wine Penedès D.O. MAP


A unique delimitation within Penedès, similar but not identical to the Penedès D.O. MAP

Spanish Sparkling Wines Comparison
2. Grape Varieties
D.O. Cava

Macabeo, Xarel-lo, Parellada, Monastrell, Garnacha, Subirat, Trepat, Chardonnay, Pinot noir

Classic Penedès

As for D.O. Cava + permitted grapes in the still wine D.O: Carignan, Sumoll, Muscat d'Alexandria, Chenin Blanc, Gewürztraminer, Riesling and others!


As for D.O. Cava, but with max. 10% permitted Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Trepat and Malvasia de Sitges

Spanish Sparkling Wines Comparison
3. Ageing on Lees
D.O. Cava

Cava De Guarda 9months,
Cava De Guarda Superior:
Reserva 15months (moving to 18 months), Gran Reserva 30months, Cava De Paraje Calificado (certified exceptional vineyards) 36months.

Classic Penedès

Effectively all Reserva (15 months minimum).


18 month minimum. Producers use Reserva/Gran Reserva terminology from D.O. Cava.

Spanish Sparkling Wines Comparison
4. Notes
D.O. Cava

'Integral Winemaker' label for 100% estate production.
Organic requirement for Cava de Guarda Superior by 2025

Classic Penedès

100% Organic
All winemaking must take place in a D.O. Penedès registered cellar.
Minimum 51% Estate grapes.
Bottles must feature vintage and disgorgement date


100 % Organic.
75% minimum Estate grapes.
0.70EU minimum grape price.
Entire winemaking process must be in-house.
Unlike Classic Penedès, NV is allowed

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The Morning After

No sooner had the horses bolted than D.O. Cava started upgrading the stables with the zoning re-think and the ability for grape-to-glass producers to use the ‘Integral Winemaker’ label. But will this be enough to bring producers back together?

It doesn’t look likely any time soon. Neither does it look particularly efficient to have three overlapping appellations for the same type of wine from the same place. In the long run, something will have to give if Spain hopes to present a united front.

Placing Penedès Wines

There are other sparkling wine regions with comparable climates and soils, but none with such a firmly-etched picture when it comes to indigenous grape varieties. Are some of these the first varieties you would jot down on a blank page as suitable for fine sparkling wine? Possibly not. Tom Stevenson, writing in Christies World Encyclopaedia of Champagne and Sparkling Wine, ventures that Cava producers:

“…just fell into the habit of thinking these varieties were indeed classic for Cava, This illustrates how premature it is for Cava’s three so-called varieties to assume traditional, let alone classic, status.”

There is value, though, in starting from a sense of heritage and building from there. That is where the diversity of wine comes from – perhaps the world is a more interesting place with one outstanding Corpinnat than ten very good sparkling Chardonnays. Nevertheless, Corpinnat’s insistence that no more than 10% of any wine can come from international varieties does seem to ‘make the bed’.

Xarel-lo, the grape behind Penedès’ top sparkling wines. Photo Claudio Valdes, Shutterstock

With lower acidities and a punchier sense of extract and grip, the finest Spanish sparkling wines don’t get knocked about by food quite as much as champagne can, taking on green vegetables, fried foods, herbs, bitterness…The ‘gap’ in the restaurant wine list – above prosecco but beneath (decent) champagne – is surely begging to be plugged. Since first testing the water with Terrers a decade ago, Recaredo’s UK agent Les Caves de Pyrène now deal with an allocation of 4-5000 bottles per year. Not large – but there isn’t much to go round. I asked Spanish buyer David Cañadas about his experiences trying to place the wines:

“I think it depends very much on the open-mindedness of the buyer or sommelier. Are they brave enough to tell their customers that there’s a world outside of grower champagne? That’s the discussion we’re having with Recaredo – they’re growers, focused on growing well. You can talk about them in the same breadth as grower champagne.

It’s not a price discussion – if you set about saying “this wine is a bit like something else, but cheaper’, you’re set for a fall. For me the discussion is about the way you farm and the efforts you’re putting in to increase quality. It doesn’t matter so much about being in an association – you can’t be successful or target the market off the back of Corpinnat or whatever organisation it might be. It’s about the producer, the producer, the producer.”

In that regard the current Spanish muddle should serve as a warning sign to other sparkling wine regions (including England). New appellations and terminology are usually met with ambivalence at best, and suspicion at worst (there is something Bond-villain-esque about Corpinnat – a sponsorship opportunity, perhaps, to set against 007’s glass of Bollinger?). Whether the appellation will ever mean half as much as the reputation of the producers alone remains to be seen.

I’m exhausted! But what does it taste like?

If you’ve made it this far you might be feeling thirsty. So where do the great and the good of Penedès fit, both in your cellar and at the table?

Xarel-lo is clearly the star in Penedès. It is a grape variety that carries pithy, herbal and citrussy intensity but seems resistant to flab ( by keeping low pHs, good acidity and displaying some resistance to oxidation). When some of Penedès’ wilder aromatic flourishes get captured but the wine retains a magical sense of finesse, energy and delicacy, then the results can be captivating.

Both Recaredo and Llopart seem to work some magic with Parellada, although many are phasing out this occasionally dilute, low-acid variety. When it’s good, Macabeo seems firm, square, front-loaded. It can get a bit flat and lifeless sometimes – whether blind or sighted I tend to find heavily Macabeo-dominant wines a bit less invigorating than those dominated by Xarel-lo. Chardonnay can certainly inject a bit of zip and finesse when Parellada and Macabeo are looming large – think polished shoes and a new haircut. Both Gramona Imperial and the brilliant Llopart Integral are fine examples of Chardonnay blends.

Wines tasted in 2021. Tasting notes from 2020 are marked *

Gramona III Lustros Reserva Brut Nature 2013 17.5

Corpinnat. 70% Xarel-lo, 30% Macabeo. 80 months on lees.

Gramona’s top cuvèe (bar the Celler Battle, which I’m not always sure I prefer to this) opens up with an alluring floral complexity, before an intense core of grapefruit, orange tropicals and zesty bergamot. Where this wine really stands out is its follow-through, all that time on lees building with cream, wax and hazelnut biscuit. Touches of starfruit and anise give it this slightly exotic lilt. Exciting wine.

Gramona Imperial Brut 2014 17.5

Corpinnat. 40% Xarel-lo, 40% Macabeo, 15% Chardonnay, 5% Parellada.

I love the airy, floaty flavours of lime and green apple macaroon, followed through with a sparky brightness to a close that starts to show just a little toasty development. Although it doesn’t posses the concentration or complexity of the top wines, it has a magic all of its own. *

Gramona III Lustros Reserva Brut Nature 2012 17

Corpinnat. 65% Xarel-lo, 35% Macabeo from the single estate Font de Jui. A change of gear from the entry level wines, with greater weight of lime oil and herbal honey layered up on rich pastry and fresh nuts. It is a much broader style of wine, with absolute dryness laying bare plenty of grip and tow on the palate. Crying out for partners on the table.*

Recaredo Reserva Particular 2005 17

Corpinnat. 52% Xarel-lo, 48% Macabeo.

A conundrum of age, power, openness and persistence. Despite some oxidative characters and quite developed fruit, this powered through with set honey and wild herbs. Real concentration and complexity. This was a March 2017 disgorgement; if you caught this wine one or two years ago it would have been even better. Look out for the new vintage and crack it open. *

Llopart Integral Brut Nature 17

Corpinnat. 40% Parellada, 30% Chardonnay, 30% Xarel-lo. Breaking the Corpinnat rules with that Chardonnay addition!?

The high percentage of Parellada is unusual, but the Chardonnay seems to pull it tight and allow some of its floaty blossom notes to do their thing. It flirts with some peardrop but gets away with it – there’s lovely squishy apricot and pineapple fruit with some more developed notes of cooked lime and demerara. Clarity and and refreshment on the palate. Totally charming stuff.

Raventós i Blanc De la Finca 2017 17

Made from the oldest vines on the estate. 60% Xarel-lo, 30% Macabeo, 10% Parellada.

Under a smart layer of hazelnut and set honey is some beautifully wild ‘n wooly russet apple, reaching a little creaminess, with addictive wisps of briny, chalky flavours dancing around. The classiness of pale lemon shortbread, so bright on the palate like a shock of tight, white silk. Herbs and grippy phenolics are beautifully woven-in, and the mousse is so suave for Penedès. It keeps unfurling over hours, and days even.

Raventós i Blanc De Nit 2017 17

5% Monastrell gives this unique wine a lovely peachy hue. Xarel-lo, Parellada and Macabeo in an unspecified blend. Delicate, charming and, unlike the vast majority of Spanish sparkling rosés, boasting clarity of texture and a buzzy, relentless energy. Juicy clementine and grapefruit, some fuzzy white peach and delicate florals riding on chalk and a subtle injection of grippy sage/tarragon/bitter herb complexity, kept in check with real succulence of fruit. Beautifully soft mousse.

Segura Viudas Torre Galimany Brut Nature Gran Reserva 2015 17

Cava D.O. A showcase for Xarel-lo aged in oak, with a small addition of Macabeo and Parellada.

You might think that oak, zero dosage and Xarel-lo would lead to something a bit brawny, but this was a lovely surprise. Refined, and carefully handled. An inviting orange blossom/peachy top note draws you in to lemon verbena, candied grapefruit and rosemary honey. It is intense with herbal notes, but not hard or too pithy. Just a little spicy creaminess on the palate takes you to oak. Great on day two – the sure sign of a good wine.

Recaredo Terrers Brut Nature 2017 16.5

Corpinnat. 57% Xarel-lo, 37% Parellada, 6% Macabeo.

I think this is the best bottle of this wine I’ve had yet. Some have been a little dried-out and dominated by oxidative notes, but this is in a good spot. Freshness of orange citrus and slightly wild green pear, with rosemary and mild fino sherry notes. It’s a dangerous game with these, but Recaredo play and win with clarity and brightness on the inside, and a sense of fruit sweetness to carry all that character. Impressed on day two as well.

Raventós i Blanc Blanc de Blancs 2017 16.5

40% Xarel-lo, 32% Macabeo, 18% Parellada.

The Blanc de Blancs is by far the most prominent, widely-available wine. There’s an element of defiance even in the name, as no Chardonnay is present. This 2017 vintage is pure refreshment, showing a gentle suaveness of texture beneath classic lime and white stone fruit. There is some grip on the back of the palate, but it is perfectly integrated. Necessary, even. Lovely style. *

Castellroig Reserva Brut Nature 2017 16.5

Corpinnat. Macabeo, Parellada, Xarel-lo, Chardonnay. Blend unknown. Stainless steel.

Clearly good materials and excellent winemaking! Jasmine, bergamot, a nice aromatic brightness with some orange citrus and rosemary. Some reductive control and finesse of texture. Well tucked-in phenolics. They have really worked hard to preserve freshness and elegance, and it shows. 16.5

Gramona Font Jui 2017 16.5

100% Biodynmaic Xarel-lo. OK, so this isn’t a sparkling wine. But it it worth noting. Some developed gingerbread spice, fino and slightly wild apple notes. Beneath, roasted citrus over honey-nut richness and chamomile; it is complex, oxidative in a managed way, and pulled tight with just enough acid line.

Vardon Kennett Esplendor 2013 16.5

55% Pinot Noir, 40% Chardonnay, 5% Xarel-lo. Full malo, a small (unspecified) amount of oak.

The Torres family’s sparkling wine. Quite a gaudy clam-shell style bottle. After much fanfare this seems to have gone somewhat quiet, with no new releases in almost three years! Not sure why as it is well done, although I wouldn’t place it in Penedès blind. Refined with some apple macaroon, blossom with ripe orange fruits and some classical praline richness in there from time on lees (and on cork). A suave, slightly reductive frame. Maybe a bit more Xarel-lo would make this more distinctive?

Mas Del Serral 2007 16

This is Pepe Raventós’s personal project. A single vineyard in the Conca del Riu Anoia, planted in 1954 with Bastard Negre and Xarel-lo. This ambitious wine wears its sense of development and openness on its chest with intense baked apple and quince, honey and sherry notes enriched with salted nuts and bakery flavours. It did leave me wondering what it would have been like at 8-10 years of age rather than 12 (and less time on cork), as it is rather dominated by oxidation. *

Recaredo Terrers Brut Nature 2016 15.5

Corpinnat. 60% Xarel-lo, 20% Macabeu, 6% Monastrell, 6% Parellada. Stainless steel.

Tasted blind. Very oxidative style, but quite intriguing and with some finesse on the palate. Nuts, quite blowsy florals, pithy and dusty. Nice herby set honey, with reasonable acidity. A big character, although this bottle has tired a bit post-disgorgement. *

Colet Vatua 2017 15.5

Classic Penedès. This is unusual in being a blend of 50% Muscat, 40% Parellada and 10% Gewürztraminer.

Hardly classic but if you’re going to be different, be different! My favourite wine of the portfolio. Lots of fun, with pure peach blossom and bergamot, even some ripe gooseberry and tropical flourishes. Some citric, oily phenolics perhaps but it’s balanced with dosage and freshness. I can think of lots of settings for this wine.*

Colet Vatua Rosé 15

Classic Penedès. The same as the Vatua but with a dosage of Garnacha from Priorat. This adds a sort of cherry bomb to the picture, with quite fun floral and herbal touches that go a little savoury alongside orange and strawberry fruit. A touch of cream on the finish. It works, but I prefer the straight Vatua. *

Torelló Brut Special Edition 2015 15

Corpinnat. 49% Macabeo, 39% Xarel-lo, 16% Parellada. A reasonable amount of age behind this for the price. Disgorged October 2020.

Lemon pith, green apple and green herbs, straight up the middle in style without great complexity but a pleasing line and length. It suffers slightly from the wishy-washiness of some Macabeo-dominant wines, but stays focused enough. This is a great example of a wine that benefits from a really recent disgorgement.

Colet Navazos Reserva 2014 15

Classic Penedès. Chardonnay, dosed with 3% Manzanilla Pasada from Equipo Navazos.

The sherry-with-bubbles idea really fits the Colet style. Crystallised fruits, nuts and baklava with dried apples and pears. Deep, golden and very open and oxidative, it makes no apologies for its stance. Quite complex and interesting, going towards salted meats on the close. Divisive. *

Vilarnau Reserva Brut ‘Organic’ 14.5

Cava. 50% Macabeo, 35% Parellada, 15% Xarel-lo. 15 months on lees.

Tasted blind it was clear some ‘flab’ was on show, and that there wasn’t much Xarel-lo focus here. A bit fatty and soapy, with dosage bumping up against phenolics and nothing adding up to much refreshment unfortunately.

Colet Tradicional Extra Brut NV 14.5

Classic Penedès. Macabeo.

A nice ripe, expressive styler marred by some rusticity. Dried apple, baked limes and honey with some sulphurous, vegetal notes that let it down. *

Colet Gran Cuvée 2016 14

Classic Penedès. 70% Chardonnay, 20% Macabeu and 10% Xarel-lo.

Quite formidably developed, deeply oxidative style of bruised apples and spiced brandy. A bit tired and dried-out. *

1 thought on “I am Spartacus! Spain’s Sparkling Standoff

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