Champagne has been in the news recently, with 2020 harvest limits reduced due to sales being hit hard by Covid-19. How exactly is Champagne’s yield regulation supposed to work, and is it doing its job? 

Each year, both sides of the Champagne table – growers and grape buyers – must agree the appellation’s yield limit. This is not a question of how many grapes can be picked off the vines, as is sometimes implied. Instead, the region takes a look at sales forecasts and decides how much of the harvest will be: 

Given the go-ahead to become champagne immediately

    • This year, Houses will be given the AOC (have authorised for use as champagne) 7,000kg per hectare immediately, whilst grower-producers will be given 8,000 kg. If sales figures reach 202 million bottles this year, then Houses will be authorised to use a further 1000 kg per hectare. If these sales are not met, then this 1000kg will be authorised as part of the 2021 yield. Given that the average over the last decade has been 13,500 kg, this represents a large drop in income for growers.
    • The Houses, however, are cautious about tying up yet more cash paying for more grapes than they need. Stock levels are forecast to approach 7 year’s worth of sales thanks to the stalling of the market in 2020.

Kept aside and allowed to become champagne in the future

    • Some consolation would ordinarily come from the ability to produce wine above 2020’s 8000 kg/year limit and place that wine in the Réserve Individuelle. This is the centrally-regulated reserve holdings of each producer, designed to absorb fluctuations in annual production.
    • In 2020 up to 7000kg per hectare could be added to the R.I. Most will be unable to keep this amount – no producer can hold more than 8000 kg per hectare’s worth of wine as a running total, and the average level across the region is already approaching this.
    • R.I. wines are not awarded the appellation until authorised for use. Producers can choose to jettison poor parts of their reserve and replace them with reserve from better harvests.
    • Yield agreements may dictate use of a certain amount of R.I. – for instance in 2018 the agreed yield of 10,800 kg per hectare comprised 500kg from the R.I., so only 10,300kg of 2018 grapes were actually authorised. If 2021 is low-yielding or disease-affected, producers will welcome having high-quality wine from good harvests in their R.I. to use.

Vinified but remain as ‘Vin Ordinaire’, probably destined for distillation

    • Any wine not awarded the AOC is kept as Vin Ordinaire. That which lies outside of a producers R.I. is sent to distillation the winter following harvest. In 2018, for example, disease-affected wine from the 2017 vintage that remained in the R.I. could be replaced with better 2018 wine and sent for distillation in the place of the excess 2018 production. 
    • Grapes, then, should not be left to rot on the vines as is sometimes reported. If you see grapes on the vines in Champagne long after harvest, it is more likely to be a ‘second crop’ of unripe grapes produced from secondary shoots.
Will any of these grapes really end up as Champagne hand sanitiser in 2021/22?

What Next?

In the end, the agreement is unlikely to either stem the flow of champagne quickly enough to protect prices or prevent large, potentially transformative losses amongst growers. Many growers believe that the UMC (the association of Houses) wants to drive down yields in order to force growers out of business and buy up land. Cash-strapped producers may struggle too, though, and it seems likely that some names will not survive the crisis. 

Whilst Champagne does manage supply to protect its pricing, there is a limit to how much be done under French and EU law. If the volume of stock becomes overwhelming for some, sell-offs are inevitable. Some of these may be sur lattes, where un-branded, un-disgorged bottles are sold on to be marketed by others. Temporarily suspended during the first few months of Covid-19, this could see a rush of lower-priced wines arrive on the market as producers dump stock under the table to raise cash. 

This crisis and the divisions it has reinforced will rumble on into next year, even in the event of a remarkable recovery in 2021. With reserves full and stocks rising, next year’s yield agreement could prove equally contentious. 


I’ve just come from watching Stephen Skelton MW chair an Institute of the Masters of Wine webinar entitled ‘What’s In Store For English Sparkling Wine’ with Justin Howard-Sneyd MW (ex-head of Waitrose wine, Domaine of the Bee, The Hive Wine Consulting), Mark Harvey (MD of Chapel Down Wines), Stephen Duckett (founder and MD, Hundred Hills Winery) and Paul Murray (CEO of Cornerstone US Wine Imports Inc). It was a smart, level-headed session looking at business end of England’s flagship wine production.

We do have a serious oversupply situation” Justin Howard-Sneyd

The oversupply of English grapes is a delicate topic. ‘Spooking’ the trade is a risk as market perception of oversupply could easily veer into ‘nobody wants to drink English Sparkling Wine because it obviously isn’t as good as they think it is’ rather than ‘it was so successful that we grew too fast’. Howard-Sneyd’s smart analysis of the current stock position would seem to suggest that the industry needs to forget about denying the upcoming pressures and start thinking about how to maintain the quality message. Here are a few headlines from the panelists.

  1. Stephen Skelton MW presented some basic facts and figures. UK plantings currently stand at around 3500 Ha, or 1/10th the size of Champagne. He estimates that 50% of all planted Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier have yet to produce wine on the shelf.
  2. Justin Howard-Sneyd MW showed that year-on-year sales growth of 10% per annum for 5 years followed by a fallback to 5% per annum would lead current stock levels to rise to almost 80 million bottles by 2028, with sales standing at just over 4 million bottles per year. This assumes planting slowing and stopping at 4000 Ha over the next two years.*
    • Even with sales growing 20% year-on-year (followed by a relaxation back to 10%) 10 years’ worth of stock could easily build up.
    • The current market for Traditional Method Sparkling Wine over £25 per bottle in the UK was around 14 million bottles. Exports last year stood at around 200,000 bottles. He predicts the £25-40 market to stall, whilst the £40+ ‘prestige’ market may actually grow, along with the £10-15 market.
  3. Paul Murray, with his experience in the global wine market, also sees £15-25 as key. His involvement in some of the UK’s first Charmat method wines stems from his belief in this sector. Nevertheless “there will be winners and losers”, and slowing down planting is key. ‘We all love the romance, but at some point you just have to stop people!” Murray believed there would be “big deals’ ahead.
  1. Nyetimber Vineyard
    Pinot Noir vines at Nyetimber

“We’re going to have to differentiate more” – Mark Harvey

The panel was unanimous about the need to diversify. The question I always have about this is: with what? Those that have either been planting Chardonnay and Pinot Noir in exceptional sites or planting dedicated still wine varieties may be sitting pretty, but what about the enormous hectarage of champagne varieties planted for sparkling wine?

Skelton and Howard-Sneyd are big believers in still Pinot Noir Rosé, which looks to be the easiest pivot to make for sparkling producers who have either over-planted or are slow to establish newer brands. Still blanc de noirs could become a specialism, too. The problem is probably more what to do with Chardonnay; whilst the best growers can probably push their Pinot Noir into the sort of ripeness needed for still rosé, doing the same for still Chardonnay is no mean feat. Many in 2019 would have been picking Champagne clones at around 9% potential alcohol and 13+ g/l TA; unlikely to produce interesting still wines. Sussex and counties further West have produced very few still Chardonnays to date, with the best coming from Kent and Essex. Across the country I would estimate that no more than 20% of Chardonnay planted could reliably be turned into still wine likely to merit £15 per bottle. Neither would most of it make especially friendly entry-level sparkling, either as Charmat or extremely youthful Traditional Method wines.

So what are these “£10-15” sparkling wines going to be made from? Paul Murray’s Charmat method Angel and Four brand used 50% Reichensteiner, 25% Madeleine Angevine and 25% Seyval Blanc – varieties that cover about 7% of the planted area in England and Wales as things stand. Combine these with other aromatic varieties with potential for Charmat wines and you might reach about 12% (more if you include Bacchus). The Pinots do have potential for these wines, but probably not on their own.

Aside from newer Bacchus plantings, many of these aromatic varieties will come from smaller vineyards who may be perfectly happy selling their own still wines into local markets. The question facing growers, then; is it time to pull up that Chardonnay and plant some Reichensteiner?!

The new generation – Rathfinny. Photo Gill Copeland/Shutterstock

The Elephant Not In The Zoom

Covid has already forced many to discount to levels that will be difficult to clamber back from. Today you can buy a case of Nyetimber Classic Cuvée for £159 from merchants despite it still being listed at £222 per six on the producer’s own website. Hattingley and Hush Heath have also made serious discounts available, and are far from alone.

Accompanying this cold reality is a discussion that was not broached – wine quality. The panel felt that the “battle” between champagne and English Sparkling Wine in terms of quality was over, and that English Sparkling Wines had little to prove. My own sense is that English Sparkling Wines have reached a ledge on a difficult cliff face. With crumbling footing below, the choice is whether to descend or ascend. Long-term, the industry needs ascenders; flagship brands who can weather the storm of Covid and overplanting without compromise on quality and reputation.

The route for the descenders is no less perilous, and possibly harder than for Champenois who find themselves in similar positions. Cheap champagne is often made from harder pressings and less desirable grape sources, but these grapes would still tend to be essentially ripe; in England cheap grapes usually mean under-ripeness, high acids and green flavours (especially when over-pressed). My experience of English Sparkling Wines around the £20 has not inspired much confidence so far, although I’m hopeful this might change with the 2018 vintage in bottle (and 2020 looking promising too).

Competition in the field of contracted vineyard and winemaking services will certainly help, and Murray and Skelton both believe there is scope for a duty reduction for English wines. Perhaps this holds the key to producing something respectable at £20. Using a quicker turnaround to drop prices doesn’t work in a low sales-pressure environment, though; in fact a slowing in the market could hold some benefits for quality as wines are forced to spend longer on lees!

If stocks can’t be financed (or are seen to drop in value) then perhaps we will see sales of un-disgorged wine sur lattes and a rise in opportunistic “soft brand” English Sparkling Wines in the supermarkets and large wine retailers. There could be some good wines around at good prices. Too many of these, though, and the ability of the headline producers to maintain premium pricing becomes seriously compromised.

Survive or Thrive?

There will be niches for still wine, but English Sparkling Wine from classic grape varieties is currently the only product of globally-significant quality produced in any serious quantity. Whilst England joins much of the global wine industry in survival mode, then creativity and diversification is understandably the only game in town. Ultimately, though, England must remember that international recognition of its wines remains embryonic, and casting a haze over what it does best could prove unhelpful.

The best-case scenario is that poor and unproductive sites are weeded out, good sites remain (or come) under the control of well-funded operations with long-term financing, and more people get to taste ‘real’ English Sparkling Wine at a lower price point. If this dynamic prevails over the side-effects of post Covid and post-overplanting re-adjustments, then England will emerge into its recovery period with a star to follow.

Read the Six Atmospheres Report ‘English Sparkling Wine 2020’

*Howard-Sneyd’s predictions about growing stock levels assume that English Sparkling Wine rises to 80% of total UK production and that yields remain at 25 Hectolitres per Hectare. Neither of these are safe; the former could potentially drop, whilst the latter is likely to climb higher as yield figures have been dragged down for many years by lower-performing vineyards. Most of the modern vineyards will achieve 7-8 tonnes per hectare of fruit (more in 2018/2019/2020), or closer to 35 Hl/Ha. Covid, too, is likely to add a few million bottles to the stock backlog.

“I was playing a gig and we got into this zone and I saw this space station and this spaceship docking into the space station‚ and these aliens talking in the space station and broadcasting over the universe. My part was this person in a spacesuit working on the outside of the station hammering something. I was playing the hammering. [laughter] The way that everything was fitting together musically was what was creating this vision for me.:”

Jazz Guitarist Kurt Rosenwinkel in an interview with Mike McKinley, 2008

Just like a musician trying to offer a window on improvisation, attempts to share our experience of flavour with others sometimes call for the construction of a ‘shadow’ process. Away from the duck-shoot of identifiable descriptors – lemon or lime, brioche or macaroon – it is the more architectural elements of a wine experience that tend to leave us grasping in the dark. 

Aroma is often discussed as one experience, but the physicality of wine is usually broken down into different streams; acidity, texture, sweetness, length. Can we construct something to help us draw these together and answer questions such as, “how does this wine taste so complete?” Or, “why does this wine not quite feel balanced?” Or, “how do I know this wine will age?” . Everyone has their own ways. I thought I would attempt to share what I think has become part of mine. 

The Cat’s Cradle

Tension is ever-present in wine. Andrew Jefford bundles it up as ‘TEPF’ , saying

“It is not the constituents of flavour in themselves which matter, but rather the nature and relationships of the lattice which links those constituents in a finished wine.”

You know that situation where the most interesting wine in a lineup has proven the hardest to talk about?  Great wines form such intricate webs of tension that they resist disassembly to the last drop. Sparkling winemakers in charge of complex blends are the elite architects of tension, for whom indescribable, inscrutable deliciousness is the ultimate badge of honour. A chef de cave publicly offering a traditional descriptor-laden tasting note on one of their own wines would seem a touch… uncouth.

Imagine a cat’s cradle. A network, built of a single thread, where tension throughout creates the kind of perfect, timeless stasis that tells you have something serious in your glass. Characters can be understood by how they relate to others; an oxidative tendency can be pulled tighter with post-disgorgement youthfulness and dosage, or an ultra-fine, polished texture might allow the drama of high acidity and low dosage to shine. The richness of time on lees might pull against incredible freshness on the palate in a late-disgorged wine. The blend, the vintage, the vinification, the prise de mousse, the ageing, the disgorgement and dosage – all these present a number of points to hang that thread around, with the hope that there is enough tension in the system to pull you right back, through that whole journey, to the vines in the ground. 

A Tension Deficit Disorder?

There’s no one way to get it right, but successful wines spin the web so that there’s never an obvious slack point in the system that lets one element – sour! fat texture! sickly butterscotch! froth! – fall loose. An unsettled blend, the effects of a troublesome vintage or a hand that is overly heavy (or overly light) in the cellar can all introduce sagging points.

Acidity or youthfulness alone don’t constitute a complete sense of tension by themselves, either. Tense wines are not necessarily difficult to drink; in fact, they are almost addictive, never tiring or collapsing, always inviting you to prise your way further in. If you feel that you’ve sussed out a wine after just one glass, it probably isn’t especially tense.

If it doesn’t collapse in structure, but grows, doesn’t become more obvious, but less, doesn’t become easier to describe, but harder, then you are in the presence of tension. Something delicious, memorable and age-worthy. Most importantly, as we all start to contemplate sitting round a (large) table with friends again, a few such wines will offer something else to talk about, from the first glass to the last.

There are a few ways to maintain a large wine estate in England. The most obvious is simply to accrue enough capital elsewhere to be able to bludgeon weather, yields, labour costs, competition and price pressure into submission. If you can afford not to have to turn a profit for…well, decades, when it comes to sparkling wine, then the whole enterprise takes on a kind of conceptual shift. Talk of ‘custodians’ or ‘thinking in generations’ sounds a bit like kicking the can down the road sometimes, although that’s nothing to complain about if the work, and the wine, is good.

Continue reading “Simpsons Wine Estate – Staying Nimble in East Kent”

We all have our dream pub quiz questions. Our fantasy tiebreakers. Here’s mine:

Q. Which grape variety is allowed in the English Quality Sparkling Wine PDO that is not allowed in champagne?

A. Früburgunder. Pinot Noir Précoce. Pinot Madeleine. Early Pinot Noir. Pinot Noir Early. If ever there was an identity crisis in the world of wine then this would be it. A Pinot Noir that ripens fully for red wine in mid-September…in England? It sounds too good to be true. With plantings increasing in the UK, is it time we blew away some of the (occasionally convenient) confusion about this grape and took a good look at what it can, and can’t do?

Continue reading “Frühburgunder – Out of The Shadows?”